Shelf Sea Oceanography and Meteorology research group: completed projects

Boiling water in the Strait of Gibraltar

  • Project PI/Co-PI: V. Vlasenko, N.Stashchuk
  • Duration: 2006–2007
  • Source: NERC Grant ref: NE/D007968/1

The principal aim of the project was to gain a greater insight into the processes relevant to large-amplitude internal waves generated by barotropic tide in the Strait of Gibraltar and to quantify in detail the transformation of tidal energy, from barotropic to baroclinic component and ultimately to mixing. The processes to be studied were:

  • flow-topography interaction resulting in generation of first-mode baroclinic bore, highly nonlinear internal solitary waves, and high-mode stationary internal lee waves in the area of the Camarinal Sill
  • dynamics of high-mode internal lee waves trapped by the barotropic tidal flow in the generation area producing the effect of "boiling water"
  • evolution of strongly nonlinear internal waves beyond the generation area.

The specific objectives of this work included:

  • processing and analysis of the experimental data collected by the University of Cadiz (Spain)

  • adjustment of a fine resolution fully nonlinear nonhydrostatic numerical tidal model to the area under study and conducting numerical runs
  • comparison of the observation data with the results of numerical modelling for the description of multimodal structure of highly nonlinear baroclinic tides in the Strait of Gibraltar.

Floating classroom for Meteorology and Oceanography

  • Project PI/Co-PI: L.Wood, S.Bennetts
  • Duration: 2005

Mini-researchers (Meteorology and Oceanography)

Len Wood and Steve Bennetts – in conjunction with a partnership of schools called Leading Edge – took part in a floating classroom for 60 students on Tuesday 12 July 2005.

Partners: Leading Edge schools, Plymouth, UK

Objectives:

This innovative approach to learning means that students from four schools across Devon and Cornwall were invited to spend the day at the Mount Batten Centre in Plymouth. Groups of students from Tamarside and Callington Community Colleges and Looe and Liskeard Community Schools took turns to spend two hour sessions on a boat out in Plymouth Sound learning about meteorology, oceanography, charts, angles and bearings.

The students took on the role of mini-researchers measuring and comparing air temperature, windspeed, and water visibility in Plymouth Sound and the Tamar.

There was a benefit of immersion in a variety of teaching and learning styles for 15 students from each of the schools involved.

Black Sea Ecosystem Recovery Project, United Nations Development Programme

  • Project PI/Co-PI: L.Mee, G.Shapiro
  • Duration: 2004–2007
  • Source: UN DP

Professor Georgy Shapiro was Chief Scientist for two fieldwork cruises in May 2004 in the Black Sea off Bulgaria and Ukraine. The cruise was commissioned by the Black Sea Ecosystem Recover (BSERP) Project Implementation Unit in Istanbul and was funded by the Global Environment Facility of the UN. 

View the BSERP-3 cruise report.

INTAS Nordic Sea in the global climate system

  • Project PI/Co-PI: G.Shapiro
  • Duration: 2004–2007
  • Source: INTAS

This EU-funded project was led by the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center in Norway. The research developed key ocean-atmosphere and ice datasets and models to study the past, present and future climate changes in the Nordic Seas. Further information about The Nordic Seas in the global climate system.

This video was developed with sponsorship from the Centre for Sustainable Futures and Schumacher College and is intended to give a "simple" (understandable to first year students and applicants) holistic presentation of a complex problem of the role of negative feedbacks in climate change.

Strongly nonlinear internal waves in lakes: generation, transformation and meromixis

  • Project PI/Co-PI: V. Vlasenko
  • Duration: 2004–2007
  • Source: INTAS 03-51-3728

The overall goals of the project were to acquire a better understanding of the dynamic and kinematic processes relevant to nonlinear internal waves in lakes, to quantify the physical processes controlling the transfer of energy within the internal wave field from large to small scales and to gain more knowledge on impact caused by wave mixing on the lake ecosystem.

The specific objectives of this work included:

  • detailed theoretical and experimental considerations of important stages of nonlinear evolution of basin-scale internal waves to short-period waves and turbulence
  • development and improvement of the three complementary numerical models: Boussinesq type model, 2D and 3D free-surface nonhydrostatic models
  • field, laboratory and numerical examination of dynamics of strongly nonlinear internal waves and mixing processes to consider new parameterizations of mixing driven by waves the lake models.

The achievement of the main goal of the project gave the possibility to understand the energy cascading from the wind to the basin-scale internal waves, and then to shorter solitary waves and turbulence in the benthic boundary layer.

Stratified flow in jet-type estuaries and fjords

  • Project PI/Co-PI: V. Vlasenko
  • Duration: 2004–2006
  • Source: NERC NEC50747X/1

The goal of the project was to gain a greater insight into the processes relevant to nonlinear internal waves in stratified estuaries and fjords produced by an external tidal forcing in a jet-type fjordic system, and to quantify in detail the pathway of tidal energy transformation, from barotropic to baroclinic component and ultimately to mixing.

The research objectives of this work included:

  • analysis and processing of experimental data collected by Scottish Association of Marine Science in the jet-type fjord Loch Etive (Scotland)
  • development of a fine resolution fully nonlinear nonhydrostatic numerical model of baroclinic tides and its application to the area under study
  • comparative analysis of the observation data and the results of numerical modelling for the description of all important stages of flow-topography interaction
  • study of evolution of strongly nonlinear internal waves and related mixing processes during their interaction with fjord boundaries.

The achievement of the project objectives has led to an understanding of the energy flow path from the barotropic tidal flux to internal waves, and then to shorter solitary waves and turbulence in ôjet-typeö fjordic systems, when generated baroclinic disturbances are effectively arrested by strong tidal currents.

Finite Element Modelling of the Hydrodynamics and Water Quality of the Patos Lagoon System, Brazil

  • Project PI/Co-PI: D.Tyrrell, K.George
  • Duration: 2004
  • Source: HR FURG

Partners:

  • Institute of Marine Studies, University of Plymouth, UK
  • Hydraulics Research (HR) Wallingford, UK
  • Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG), Brazil

Objectives:

  • The aim of this research project is to simulate the physical processes of hydrodynamics, transport and dispersion, and water quality in the Patos Lagoon and Estuary system, Brazil, using a 2 dimensional finite element hydrodynamic and water quality model (TELEMAC-2D and WQFLOW-2D). It is intended to use the model as a predictive tool to aid the decision making process for the rehabilitation and management of degraded environments within the estuary. This study hopes to provide advancement in the knowledge of simulating a complex system for the purposes of practical management. Specific objectives are:
  • To carry out integrated observations of the more relevant magnitudes (relative to hydrodynamics, suspended matter, nutrients and pollutants) in the Patos Lagoon Estuary and Saco da Mangueira that has multiple pollution sources (industrial and domestic wastewater discharges ) and eutrophication problems.
  • To interpret the data to provide an increased understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the pollution of the Patos Lagoon System.
  • To validate and evaluate the model TELEMAC (dealing with hydrodynamics, dispersion and water quality) in terms of its ability to represent the involved processes and its utility as a predictive tool to study other cases.
  • To provide input to a reduced set of parameters synthetically describing the state of health of the Patos Lagoon system.

Summary of research:

The Patos Lagoon and estuary system is of major importance to the communities of the Rio Grande do Sul State, with the consequence of being subject to the influence of multiple and conflicting human impacts, many of which have the potential for pollution. 

Such activities include recreation and tourism; abstraction of drinking water and the disposal of domestic waste water; the industries of fertiliser production, fish processing, and petroleum refining; artisanal fisheries and aquaculture; agriculture; and navigation. Within the boundaries of the estuary are several shallow embayments, which are degraded environments suffering from the effects of pollution from many of these sources.

Conference presentations:

  • D.A.Tyrrell, K.J.George. Finite Element Modelling of the Hydrodynamics and Water Quality of the Patos Lagoon System, Brazil, Proceedings, International Coastal Symposium, Itajaí, Brazil, March 2004.
  • D.A.Tyrrell, K.J.George. Finite Element Modelling of the Hydrodynamics and Water Quality of the Patos Lagoon System, Brazil, European Geosciences Union 1st General Assembly, Nice, France, 25 - 30 April 2004.

Mass transfer through the submarine canyons

  • Project PI/Co-PI: G.Shapiro
  • Duration: 2002–2005
  • Source: INTAS 01-0460

Partners:

  • Centre Mediterrani d’Investigacions Marines i Ambientales, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar (Barcelona, Spain)
  • University of Plymouth, Institute of Marine Studies (UK)
  • P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (Moscow, Russia) Kaliningrad State University, Geography Department (Russia)
  • Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Department of Theoretical Hydrodynamics (Novosibirsk, Russia)

Objectives:

The main goal of the project is to provide a deeper understanding of physical mechanisms that control the hydrodynamic regimes associated with submarine canyons and to evaluate their impact on mass transfer between the continental shelf and open ocean.

This EU project was led by the Institut de Ciences de Mar in Barcelona, for further information please visit their project web page.

Dense water overflows off continental shelves (cascading) 

  • Project PI/Co-PI: G.Shapiro
  • Duration: 2000–2003
  • Source: INTAS 99-1600

This project developed the understanding and modelling of dense water overflows, such as  "cascading" as a meso-scale process. The project was led by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, with partners from the UK, Russia, Belarus and Germany.

Further information about the dense water overflows off continental shelves project.

Recent/current climate of Greenland and relation with Ice Sheet mass balance

  • Project PI/Co-PI: E.Hanna
  • Duration: 2000–2003
  • Source: NERC GR3/11186

Collaborators:

  • Edward Hanna (Institute of Marine Studies, Plymouth)
  • John Cappelen (Danish Met. Institute, Copenhagen)
  • Joe McConnell (Desert Research Institute, USA)
  • Philippe Huybrechts (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany)
  • Tom Mote (University of Georgia, USA)
  • Roger Braithwaite (University of Manchester, UK)

Objectives:

Relating recent/ongoing changes in ice and climate in Greenland to improve understanding of present-day surface mass balance of Greenland Ice Sheet and its likely response to future sea-level change.

Journal publications:

  • 2002, "Surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet from climate analysis data and accumulation/runoff models" (E. Hanna, P. Huybrechts and T. Mote). Annals of Glaciology 35, in press.
  • 2003 Recent cooling in coastal southern Greenland and relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (Hanna, E. & J. Cappelen). Geophysical Research Letters 30 (3), 1132, doi:10.1029/2002GL015797.

  • September 2002, "Recent climate of southern Greenland" (E. Hanna & J. Cappelen). Weather 57, 9, 320-328.
  • March 2002, "The Climate of Kangerlussuaq, South-West Greenland" The Journal of Meteorology 27, 85-90.
  • December 2001, "Annual net snow accumulation over southern Greenland from 1975 to 1998" (J.R. McConnell, G. Lamoney, E. Hanna, E. Mosley-Thompson, R.C. Bales, D. Belle-Oudry and J.D. Kyne). Journal of Geophysical Research (Special PARCA Issue), D24, 33827-33837.
  • September 2001, "Patterns and variations of snow accumulation over Greenland, 1979-98, from ECMWF analyses, and their verification" (E. Hanna, P. Valdes & J. McConnell). Journal of Climate, 14, N 17, 3521-3535.
  • February 2001, "Validation of ECMWF (re)analysis surface climate data, 1979-98, for Greenland and implications for mass balance modelling of the Ice Sheet" (with P. Valdes). International Journal of Climatology 21, 171-195.

Conference presentations:

  • 2002 September 4, International Glaciological Society British Branch Meeting, "Recent changes in ice and climate in Greenland" (15-min. talk).
  • 2002 April 24, European Geophysical Society, "Mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet from meteorological and glaciological modelling" (15-min talk; coworkers P. Huybrechts, J. McConnell & T. Mote).
  • 2002 April 24, European Geophysical Society, "Recent cooling in southern Greenland" (15-min. talk; coworker J. Cappelen).
  • 2001 August 19-23, International Glaciological Society International Symposium on Ice Cores and Climate, Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, "Surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet from climate analysis data and accumulation/runoff models" (15-min. talk; coworkers Philippe Huybrechts & Thomas Mote).

Comparative analysis of Water Mass Distribution and Circulation in semi-enclosed seas (White Sea & Irish Sea)

  • Project PI/Co-PI: G.Shapiro
  • Duration: 2000–2003
  • Source: HEFCE

This project investigated the mesoscale water mass structure of the White Sea, which lies off the northwest coast of Russia. The project compared and contrasted the hydrology of the White Sea with the Irish Sea, which another example of a semi-enclosed sea.

Further information about the comparative analysis.

Morphodynamics (Teignmouth & Humber)

  • Project PI/Co-PI: K.Dyer

Morphodynamics of Estuarine Systems in the United Kingdom: Teignmouth and Humber

Partners:

  • Institute of Marine Studies, University of Plymouth, UK
  • Associated British Ports – ABPMER, Southampton, UK
  • Hydraulics Research (HR) Wallingford, UK
  • Harbour Master at Teignmouth, UK

Objectives:

The management of estuaries requires a good understanding of their multiple uses and complex processes which are intrinsically related. The main objectives of this project are to provide a better comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the morphodynamic evolution of estuaries, and to address the problems that arise when controlling these systems. This kind of approach has a general application and constitutes the state of the art in the management of estuaries all over the world. 

In order to achieve these objectives and to test two real data sets, Teignmouth (South Devon) and the Humber Estuary (Yorkshire), both in UK, were chosen as case studies due to the extensive information available for these sites. TELEMAC numerical model was selected to simulate the morphodynamic processes inherent to these environments.

Specific research aspects addressed in this project are:

  • apply TELEMAC to both sites data sets in order to reproduce their basic hydrodynamics and sedimentological processes
  • compare the response of the model to the real systems
  • identify and understand the most important factors that control the morphodynamics of both sites through a sensitivity analysis
  • project most probable morphodynamic scenarios for the future based on real processes developed in the estuaries including man-made activities
  • evaluate the feasibility of TELEMAC being applied with top-down (system based) models to predict longer-term trends on the chosen system
  • assess whether morphodynamic models can be reliable in reproducing real environments
  • contribute to a better understanding of the morphodynamics of british estuarine environments and consequently offer a better quality basis for estuarine management decisions.

Mesh representation of field areas:

Mesh used for simulations at Teignmouth (UK) 

Cycles in estuarine hydrodynamics in relation to cycles in near-bed flocculating suspensions

  • Project PI/Co-PI: K.Dyer
  • Source: NERC

Collaborator:

Professor Keith Dyer (Institute of Marine Studies, University of Plymouth, UK)

Synopsis:

Tidal cycles in turbulence, current velocity and salinity are compared with near-bed mud suspension characteristics through in-situ measurements of floc settling velocity, size and mass concentration. The complex nature of flocculating suspensions results in lags in the response of sediment properties to local forcing mechanisms which has important implications for residual flux magnitudes and directions. This study will examine the phase relationships between floc settling velocity, size and density, suspension concentration, turbulence and velocity in an estuarine environment and use the results to estimate transport and deposition rates as well as net fluxes over a tidal cycle. Dependent monitoring of wave breaking conditions.

The acoustic noise generated by breaking waves in surf conditions (Nuffield Foundation Award)

  • Project PI/Co-PI: S.Bass
  • Source: Nuffield Foundation

Synopsis:

Ambient noise generated by breaking waves provides information relating to the amount of energy that is lost in the breaking process. This energy is important in coastal seas because it generates turbulence and currents, suspends sediment and transports it along the coast. This work studies ambient noise in surf conditions by using an omnidirectional broad-band hydrophone to listen to the sound generated by waves breaking. 

Current and wave height information will be provided by current meters and pressure sensors respectively. The hydrophone data gives temporal information on the sound character of individual breakers and is compared with hydrodynamic and sediment concentration measurements. An over water video of the sea surface above the hydrophones will provide independent monitoring of wave breaking conditions.

Meso-scale physical and biogeochemical processes in coastal waters of the Russian Arctic

  • Project PI/Co-PI: G.Shapiro
  • Duration: 1998–2001
  • Source: INTAS 97-1881

Partners:

  • Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK
  • Dept of Environmental Science, University of Plymouth, UK
  • Institute of Marine Studies, University of Plymouth, UK
  • Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Marinas, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Vigo, Spain
  • P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow, Russia
  • Geography Faculty, Moscow State University, Russia
  • Nenetsk Okrug Committee of Ecology, Narjan -Mar, Russia

Objectives:

The project aims are to identify and quantify meso-scale physical and biogeochemical processes in the coastal waters of the White Sea and the Barents Sea and to assess the environmental impact of these processes. The main specific objectives are to:

  • investigate the physical and biogeochemical processes, governing material fluxes in the study area
  • estimate the environmental impact of meso-scale processes in the White and southern Barents Seas
  • collate existing observations of physical, chemical and biological conditions in the White and southern Barents Seas
  • formulate modelling approaches for diagnosis and prognosis of these processes.

Journal publications:

  • G. I. Shapiro, V. P. Shevchenko, A. P. Lisitsyn, A. N. Serebryany, N. V. Politova, and T. M. Akivis, 2000. Influence of Internal Waves on the Suspended Sediment Distribution in the Pechora Sea. Doklady Akademii Nauk Rossii (English translation Doklady Earth Sciences. V. 373, P. 899-901).
  • V. N. Lukashin, K. N. Kosobokova, V. P. Shevchenko, G. I. Shapiro, A. N. Pantulin, N. M. Pertzova, A. V. Savenko, M. G. Deev, A. A. Kljuvitkin, A. N. Novigatsky, R. Prego, L. Latche, 2002. Results of multi-disciplinary oceanographic observations in the White Sea, June 2000. Oceanology, 43, No2, 237-253 (pdf).
  • A. N. Serebryany, G. I. Shapiro, 2002. Observations of the internal waves in the Pechora Sea, 2001. In: Experience of system oceanologic studies in the Arctic. M., Scientific world, 644 PP., Eds: A. P. Lisitzin et al, P.140-150.

Conference presentations:

  • Shapiro G.I., Serebryany A.N., 1999: Internal waves in the Pechora Sea. Proceedings of the 24th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, the Hague, the Netherlands, April, 1999. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 1999, vol 1(2), P.393.
  • Aleynik, D.L.; Shapiro, G.I. Search for cascading in historical data, 2000. 25th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, Nice , France, 25–29 April 2000.
  • Shevchenko, V.P.; Shapiro, G.I.; Serebryany, A.N.; Politova, N.V.; Akivis, T.M., 2000. Impact of breaking internal waves on the vertical distribution of suspended matter. 25th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, Nice, France, 25–29 April 2000. Published on the CD-ROM and on the INTERNET site.
  • Shapiro, G.I., 2000. Cross-margin exchanges in the benthic layers of the Arctic seas. Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) Pan Arctic Meeting, 7–9 November 2000, Callaway Gardens, Georgia.
  • Shevchenko, V.I., Lukashin, V.N., Klyuvitkin, A.A., Novigatsky, A.N.; Pantyulin, A.N.; Shapiro, G.I.; Deev, M.G.; Savenko, A.V., 2001. Suspended matter distribution in the White Sea in June 2000. 26th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, Nice, France, 25–30 March 2001.
  • Gordeev, V. V., Shapiro G. I., Kossobokova X. N., Pantiulin A. N., Katsepalov A. P., Prego R. & Howland R., 2001. Meso-scale and biogeochemical processes in coastal waters of the Russian Arctic: INTAS 97-1881. Geology of the Seas and Oceans, Vol II, International School on Marine Geology, Moscow, 182-183.
  • Latché, L., Shapiro, G., Pantiulin, A. N. "Thermohaline intrusion in the White Sea in June 2000". 27th General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society, Acropolis, Nice , France, 21–26 April 2002 (Abstract).
  • V.N.Lukashin, V.P.Shevchenko, K.N.Kosobokova, G.I.Shapiro, N.M.Pertzova, A.N.Pantulin, A.V.Savenko, Deev M.G. Prego R. Preliminary results of the complex expedition "The mesoscale hydrophysical and biogeochemical processes in the White Sea – 2000 (INTAS 97-1881)" Abstracts of LOIRA, Moscow, 2000.
  • Kosobokova K.N., Pertzova N.M. Zooplankton composition and distribution in estuarian zone of the Kandalaksha Bay, the White Sea. Abstracts of 6th Conference of the Biological station of MSU, August 2001 (in Russian).

Invited lectures:

  • Shapiro G.I. "Internal waves and transport of pollutants in the Pechora Sea, Russian Arctic", invited lecture at School of Ocean Sciences, University of Wales, UK, 30 June, 1999.
  • Shapiro G.I. "Transport of dissolved and particulate matter by mesoscale currents and non-linear internal waves", invited lecture at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA, 18 February, 1999.
  • Shapiro G.I. "Transport of dissolved and particulate matter by mesoscale currents and non-linear internal waves", invited lecture at Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK, 8 February, 1999.
  • Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, Canada, "Shelf-Ocean Exchange Processes", 3 November, 1998.

Field programme:

  • August 1998, the Pechora Sea, R/V "Ak.Sergey Vavilov" (13th cruise, funded by Russian Academy of Sciences).
  • June 2000, the White Sea, R/V "Kartesh" (EU funded).

Sand and mud dynamics in shelf seas

  • Project PI/Co-PI: S. Bass
  • Duration: 1997
  • Source: SEFAS

Partners: Cambridge, UEA, CEFAS

Synopsis:

This ongoing collaboration involves analysis of sediment and hydrodynamic information acquired by the CEFAS minipods in an inner shelf environment at five different locations and over a period of two months in 1997.

Journal publications

  • "Phase relationships between fine sediment suspensions and tidal currents in coastal seas," S.J. Bass, J. N. Aldridge, I.N. McCave, and C.E. Vincent, Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans, 107 (C10), 2002.
  • Invited paper "Ambient noise in the natural surf zone: wave breaking frequencies," S.J. Bass and A.E. Hay, IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering, 22(3), 1997.
  • "Magnetic susceptibility and exchange interaction parameters for some Mn.III2.VI4 compounds," J.C. Woolley, S. Bass, A.-M. Lamarche, G. Lamarche,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 131, 199-209 (1994).
  • "Magnetic behaviour of some Mn.III2.VI4 compounds and their alloys,"J.C. Woolley, S. Bass, A.-M. Lamarche, G. Lamarche, M. Quintero, M. Morocoima and P. Bocaranda,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. 150, 353-362, (1995).

Papers in progress

  • "Boundary layer dynamics in a mixed-sediment coastal environment"
  • "Measurements of mud and sand transport paths outside of the Wash embayment, eastern England: validity of point measurements"
  • "Controls on mud and sand suspensions at 4 hydrodynamically similar sites in the North Sea''

Conference presentations

  • "Estimating Fine Sediment fluxes in coastal seas: validity of point measurements, " S.J. Bass, J. M. Rees, I.N. McCave, and C.E. Vincent, Coastal Sediments 2003, Florida, May 2003
  • "Uncertainties in suspended sediment concentration estimates due to variations in sediment size," C.E. Vincent S.J. Bass and J. M. Rees, Coastal Sediments 2003, Florida, May 2003
  • "Mud and sand transport paths outside of the Wash embayment, eastern England," S.J. Bass, J. M. Rees, I.N. McCave, and C.E. Vincent, Proceedings, Coastal and Shelf Sediment Transport Meeting, British Geological Survey, London, November, 2002
  • "Modelling temporal patterns of fine sediment suspensions," S.J. Bass, J. N. Aldridge, I.N. McCave, and C.E. Vincent, Proceedings, American Geophysical Union Conference, San Francisco, December 2001
  • "Fine sediment suspension patterns: a simple modelling approach," S.J. Bass, J. N. Aldridge, I.N. McCave, and C.E. Vincent, Proceedings, European Geophysical Society Conference, Nice, April 2001
  • "Ambient noise in the natural surf zone: wave breaking frequencies," S.J. Bass and A.E. Hay, Conference Proceedings, Oceans’98, Nice, September 1998. "Ambient Noise in the Surf Zone," S. J. Bass, A. E. Hay, Proceedings, Canadian Coastal Conference Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, October 1995
  • "Observations of mud and sand suspensions in the North Sea," S.J. Bass, I.N. McCave, C.E. Vincent, Proceedings, American Geophysical Union Conference, San Francisco, December 1998
  • "Observations of suspension events at tidal frequencies in the North Sea," S.J. Bass, I.N. McCave, C.E. Vincent, J.M. Rees, Conference Proceedings, UK Oceanography, Southampton, October 1998
  • "Ambient Noise in the Surf Zone," S. J. Bass, A. E. Hay, Proceedings, American Geophysical Union Conference, San Francisco, December 1995