Dr Mark Fitzsimons
Associate Professor (Reader) in Organic Geochemistry
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (Faculty of Science and Engineering)
- Assiciate Professor in Organic Geochemistry
- Principal and Co-Investigator on several externally-funded research programmes (see Research Interests)
- Teaching on BSc and MChem Chemistry
- Member of the Biogeochemistry Research Centre
2010 - Promoted to Associate Professor in Organic Geochemistry, University of Plymouth
2006 - Elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC)
2006 - Promoted to Senior Lecturer in Organic Geochemistry, University of Plymouth.
2001 - Lecturer in Organic Geochemistry, Centre for Chemical Sciences, University of Plymouth
1995 - Elected to the Royal Society of Chemistry as Member and Chartered Chemist (CChem MRSC)
1995 - Lecturer in Environmental Chemistry, Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex University
1993 - Higher Scientific Officer, Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom MAST II
project: "Oxic-anoxic interfaces as productive sites"
1993 - PhD Marine Organic Geochemistry (The Geochemistry of the Methylamines in Recent Marine
and Lacustrine Sediments); University of Liverpool
1989 - BSc (Hons) Chemistry with Oceanography; University of Liverpool
I am an Associate Professor in Organic Geochemistry with 40+ publications and 700 citations (h-index 15). Understanding the reactivity and characterisation of aquatic organic nitrogen (ON; both natural and xenobiotic) have been my research priorities and I have developed methods for the trace determination of methylamines, aminoketones and peptides in both water and sediments.
Recent research highlights include demonstrating that the uptake of ON to estuarine suspended particles is biologically- and not chemically-controlled, identifying a photochemical-microbial degradation pathway for N-containing benzodiazepines in aquatic systems, and obtaining the first methylamine data for the Southern Ocean. I have supervised 9 PhD and 1 MPhil student to completion and my projects on nutrient cycling have been funded from a variety of sources,including the NERC, the Leverhulme Trust, the Environment Agency and the EU. I am a member of the NERC Peer Review College
I grew up by the sea in County Down, on the island of Ireland, and loved Chemistry at school; this led me to search for a university degree programme that could combine the two. I graduated in BSc (Hons) in Chemistry with Oceanography from the University of Liverpool, UK, and remained there to continue my PhD research under the supervision of Professor George Wolff (Thesis title:"The Geochemistry of the Methylamines in Recent Marine and Lacustrine Sediments") in the Environmental Organic Chemistry and Geochemistry Group. I then moved to the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom and worked with Professor Paul Dando on a pan-European project studying the biogeochemistry of hydrothermal, geothermal and cold seep ecosystems. In 1995, I joined Middlesex University as a Lecturer in Environmental Chemistry and renewed my interest in the biogeochemistry of organic nitrogen. I taught Environmental Organic Chemistry at undergraduate and masters level and was Programme Manager for MSc Water Pollution Control. Other pedagogic activities included writing a distance learning module on physico-chemistry and water quality modelling for an MSc Integrated Pollution Control (Hong Kong Baptist University, China), and developing a transferable skills module for first year undergraduates. I joined the University of Plymouth in 2001, as a member of the Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group (PEGG), led by Professor Steve Rowland (now part of the Biogeochemistry Research Centre). As a member of the Centre for Chemical Sciences, I teach on the BSc (Hons) and MChem Analytical Chemistry programmes and have acted as Admissions Tutor and Programme Manager. I am currently Deputy Head of Chemistry, Senior Tutor and the Employability Lead.
- Chartered Chemist and Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (CChem FRSC)
- Member of Institute of Soil Science (M. I. Soil Sci.)
- Member of RSC Environmental Chemistry Group
- Member of RSC Analytical Division
- Member of the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association.
- Member of Scottish Association of Marine Science
Roles on external bodies
2009-date Member of NERC Peer Review College
2009-2010 President of European Association of Chemistry and the Environment
2011-2014 Secretary of Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA)
2011-2014 Member of RSC Analytical Division Council
2011-2014 Trustee of Analytical Chemistry Trust Fund
Chemistry of carbonyl compounds
High Performance Liquid ChromatographyMass Spectrometry
Nitrogen cycling in Aqueous Systems
Characterisation of Sewage Biomarkers and their Application
Professional & Scientific Skills
Effective report writing
Undertaking a research project
Staff serving as external examiners
PhD: University of Liverpool; University of Essex; UHI Millenium Institute; Dublin City University
MSc: University of Hull
External validation: BSc (Hons) Marine Science, Scottish Association for Marine Science/UHI Millenium Institute; Postgraduate courses in Environmental Science, Environmental Research Institute/UHI Millenium Institute
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth. However, a considerable increase in the industrial production of nitrogen during the 20th century (rising from ~15 Tg* of nitrogen in 1860 to 186 Tg in 2005), and its global use in artificial fertilizers, means that it is now present at excessively high concentrations in many coastal and inland waters. This has led to a host of water quality problems, including excess plant growth, harmful algal blooms and increased water treatment costs.
Although drinking water is a liquid, natural waters are a complex mixture of liquid water, particles and living and dead organisms. These components of water all affect how nitrogen reacts in rivers and estuaries, and how much reaches the open sea. My recent research has looked at how this mixture affects nitrogen concentrations in water, particularly the little understood organic nitrogen fraction. Human inputs are also very important and I am interested in understanding how routine activities such as dredging and sewage effluent discharge influence nitrogen concentrations, as well the predicted changed weather patterns associated with climate change.
My research has focussed on understanding the behaviour ofvolatile, reactive chemical molecules in the environment, particularly thosecontaining nitrogen, and I have secured funding for a diverse portfolio ofresearch. Many of these compounds have been historically difficult to measureand recent method advances I have pioneered have led to collaborations on majorinternational marine research programmes, where volatile nitrogen compounds areof great interest of the oceanographic community (e.g the Antarctic CircumpolarExpedition).
Currently funded research areas are:
· Marine cycling ofvolatile amines and their role in climate regulation (NERC)
· Can organic nitrogensupport marine phytoplankton production? (EU)
· Environmental behaviourof pharmaceuticals in surface water and soils (NERC, Astra Zeneca)
· Biogeochemistry andsustainability of engineered soils; FABSOIL (EU)
Through this work I hope to contribute to improved management of our aquatic ecosystems. This would include outcomes such as how the organic nitrogen transported by rivers into estuaries actually affects the ecosystem (e.g. does it stay in the estuary and remain unreactive or is it transported into coastal waters where it can stimulate algal blooms?). This data can then be used to improve environmental models that try to simulate how estuarine systems behave in order to provide a scientific understanding for the development of environmental management and policy.
1Tg = 1x109 Kg
Associate Editor for Environmental Chemistry Letters.
I review papers for the following journals:
Engineering and Computational Mechanics
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Limnology and Oceanography
Limnology and Oceanography: Methods
Marine Environmental Research
The Science of the Total Environment
Research degrees awarded to supervised students
2018-2021 Preston Akenga (Commonwealth Science Council)
Project title: Soil and wastewater properties influencingantiviral uptake in plants.
With Dr Sean Comber (DoS), Dr Alan Tappin, Prof. Anthony Gachanja (Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya)
2016-2019 Caroline White (University of Plymouth)
Project title: Comparison of natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric nitrogen in the coastal zone and the open ocean.
With Dr Simon Ussher (DoS), Dr Tom Bell (PML)
2015-2018 Simone Bagnis (Astra Zeneca)
Project title: Understanding the fate of emerging pollutants and developing aquatic risk assessment methodologies for environmental waters where sewage treatment infrastructure is limited or absent.
With Dr Sean Comber (DoS), Dr Alan Tappin, Dr Jason Snape (AZ)
2014-2017 Monica Raccagni (EU-MARES)
Project title: Organic nitrogen uptake by marine algae: consequences for marine ecosystem functioning and biodiversity.
With Dr Ian Probert (UPMC,France) Prof. Maeve Lohan, Dr Agnese Marchini (Uni Pavia, Italy)
2014-2017 Katherine Lees (Astra Zeneca)
Project title: Developing soil risk assessments of active pharmaceutical ingredients in regions with highwater reuse.
With Dr Sean Comber (DoS), DrAlan Tappin, Dr Jason Snape (AZ)
2016 Emma Pidduck (NERC)
Do suspendedsedimentary processes influence fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus inestuaries?
With Dr AndrewManning (DoS), Professor Paul Worsfold and Dr Alex Souza (Proudman OceanogrphicLaboratory)
With Dr C. Anthony Lewis, Dr Steve Archer (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences) and Dr Ruth Airs (PML)
2015 Kate Schofield (ESF-CUC studentship)
Project Title: The Perfect Soil: an investigation of the chemical characteristics needed for healthy soils at the Eden Project, Cornwall
With Dr Alan Tappin, Dr Tim Pettitt (Eden Project) and Dr Gavyn Rollinson (Camborne School of Mines)
Thesis title: The transport and fate of fluoxetine hydrochoride, diazepam and their human metabolites in sewage sludge-amended soil.
With Prof Steve Rowland (DoS) and Prof. Peter Matthews
2007 Mekibib Dawit (Environment Agency)
Thesis title: The biogeochemical cycling of ammonium and methylamines in inter-tidal sediments.With Prof Mike Revitt (Middlesex University)
2006 Chris Leakey (NERC)
Thesis title: Quantifying inhabitation, feeding and connectivity between adjacent estuarine and coastal regions for three commercially important marine fishes.
With Prof Martin Attrill (DoS) and Dr Simon Jennings (CEFAS)
2006 Philippa Curtis-Jackson (NERC)
Thesis title: Characterisation of algal-derived organic nitrogen.
With Dr Guillame Masse
2004 Anisah Lee Abdullah (Government of Malaysia)
Thesis title: Modelling of suspended sediment in coastal waters using remote sensing and GIS techniques.With Professor Brian Shutes (DoS; Middlsex University) and Dr Wan Ruslan (University Sains Malaysia)
Grants & contracts
MAIN AWARDS (excluding studentship awards)
2018-2021NERC Discovery Science - £121,757 (Co-I)
Is bacterial DMS consumption dependent on methylamines in marine waters?
Dr Joanna Dixon, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth (PI)
2017-2019EU (ERDF - Agritech) - £210,000 (PI)
FABSOIL:Investigation of the biogeochemical properties of manufactured soils.
2016-2019NERC International Opportunities Fund - £35,000 (Co-I)
NOSASSO(Nitrogen Osmolytes Across the Surface Southern Ocean: Environmental Driversand Bioinformatics); Dr Ruth Airs, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth (PI)
2016-2018Swiss Polar Institute (Antarctic Circumpolar Expedition)- €33,000 (Co-I)
SORPASSO(Surveying Organic Reactive gases and Particles Across the Surface SouthernOcean); Prof Rafel
SimoCSIS, Barcelona, Spain (PI)
2014-2017EU Doctoral Programme on Marine Ecosystem Health and Conservation –MARES €121,680 (PI)
Organicnitrogen uptake by marine algae: consequences for marine ecosystem functioningand biodiversity; with Dr Ian Probert (Station Biologique deRoscoff, France)
2011-2014 European Social Fund-Combined Universities of Cornwall £60,000 (PI)
The Perfect Soil; with Dr Tim Pettitt(Eden Project) and Dr Gavyn Rollinson (University of Exeter)
2008-2012Government of Portugal. £70,000 (Co-I)
Nitrogen reduction in marine systems: in-situ study of alternative metabolicpathways linked to Coastal Groundwater Discharge; with Dr Carlos Rocha, Trinity College Dublin,Ireland
2007-2010NERC £323,452 (PI)
Bacterial Assimilation of Riverine Organic Nitrogen; with Dr AlanTappin (R Co-I), University of Plymouth and ProfessorAlan McCarthy (Co-I), University of Liverpool.
2003-2006The Leverhulme Trust £103,184 (PI)
Natural estuarine particles and their uptake of nitrogen in estuaries;with Dr Alan Tappin (R Co-I) and Professor Geoff Millward (Co-I), University ofPlymouth
- Biogeochemistry Research Centre (BGC)
- Chemical Sciences
- Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry
2019van Pinxteren M., Fomba K., van Pinxteren D., Triesch N.,Hoffmann E., Cree C., Fitzsimons M.F., vonTümpling W., Herrmann H. 2019. Aliphatic amines at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory: abundance, origins and sea-air fluxes. Atmospheric Environment. AcceptedBagnis S., Fitzsimons M.F. Snape J., TappinA., Comber S. 2019. Impact of the wastewater-mixing zone on attenuation of pharmaceuticals in natural waters: Implications for an impact zone inclusive environmental risk assessment. The Science of the Total Environment 658, 42-50.doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.191
Lees K., Fitzsimons M.F., Snape J., Tappin A., Comber S. 2018. Soil sterilisation methods for use in OECD 106:How effective are they? Chemosphere. 209, 61-67. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.06.073
Cree Charlotte H.L., Airs Ruth, Archer Stephen D., Fitzsimons Mark F. 2018. Measurement of methylamines in seawater using solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography. Limnology & Oceanography : Methods. doi: 10.1002/lom3.10255
Bagnis S., Fitzsimons M.F., Snape J., Tappin A., Comber S. 2018. Processes of distribution of pharmaceuticals in surface freshwaters. Implications for risk assessment. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 16 (4), 1193–1216 doi:10.1007/s10311-018-0742-7.
H. Kate Schofield, Tim R. Pettitt, Alan D. Tappin, Gavyn K. Rollinson, Mark F. Fitzsimons. 2018. Does carbon limitation reduce nitrogen retention insoil? Environmental Chemistry Letters. 16(2), 623-630 doi: 10.1007/s10311-017-0700-9
Bagnis S., Fitzsimons M. Snape J., Tappin A., Comber S. 2018. Sorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients in untreatedwastewater effluent and effect of dilution in freshwater: Implications for an“impact zone” environmental risk assessment approach. The Science ofthe Total Environment 624, 333-341. doi: org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.092
ManuelDallosto, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Marco Paglione, David Beddows, DariusCeburnis, Charlotte Cree, Pau Cortes, Marina Zamanillo, Sdena Nunes, GonzaloPérez, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Mikhail Emelianov, Dolors Vaque, Cèlia Marrasé,Marta Estrada, Maria Sala, Montserrat Vidal, Mark F. Fitzsimons, RachaelBeale, Ruth Airs, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini,Roy Harrison, Colin O'Dowd and Rafel Simo. 2017. Antarctic sea ice region as asource of biogenic organic nitrogen in aerosols. Scientific Reports 7,6047. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06188-x
Tappin A.D., McCarthy A.J., Loughnane P and Fitzsimons M.F. 2016.Unexpected removal of the mostneutral cationic pharmaceutical in riverwaters. Environmental Chemistry Letters 14,455-465. doi:10.1007/s10311-016-0582-2
Lees K., Fitzsimons M., Snape J., Tappin A., Comber S. 2016.Pharmaceuticals in soils of lower income countries: physico-chemical fate andrisks from wastewater irrigation. Environment International94,712-723. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.06.018
Tappin A.D., McCarthy A.J., Loughnane P. and Fitzsimons M.F. 2014. Bacterio-plankton transformation of diazepam and 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone in river waters. Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts 16, 2227-2236. doi: 10.1039/C4EM00306C
Tappin A.D., McCarthy A.J., Loughnane P and Fitzsimons M.F. 2012 Removalof atrazine from river waters by indigenous microorganisms. EnvironmentalChemistry Letters 10, 89-96. doi: 10.1007/s10311-011-0332-4
Fitzsimons M.F., Lohan M., Millward G.E. and Tappin A.D. 2011. The roleof suspended particles in Treatise on Estuarine and CoastalScience; Volume 4, Geochemistry of Estuaries and Coasts (G. Shimmield,ed.). Elsevier. pp 71-114. ISBN: 978-0-08-087885-0
Ussher S.J.,Manning A.D., Tappin A.D. and Fitzsimons M.F. 2011.. Observeddissolved and particulate nitrogen concentrations in a mini flume. Hydrobiologia 672,69-77. doi: 10.1007/s10750-011-0759-4
TappinA.D., Millward G.E. and Fitzsimons M.F. 2010. Particle-WaterInteractions of Organic Nitrogen in Turbid Estuaries.Marine Chemistry. 122,28-38.
LeakeyC.D.B., Attrill M.J., Fitzsimons M.F. 2009. Multi-elementotolith chemistry of juvenile sole (Solea solea), whiting (Merlangiusmerlangus) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in the ThamesEstuary and adjacent coastal regions. Journal of Sea Research. 61,268-274. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2008.12.002
Rees A.P., Hope S.B., Widdicombe C.E., Dixon J.L., FitzsimonsM.F., Woodward E.M.S. 2009. High summertime rainfall-induced elevations ofAlkaline Phosphatase Activity in the western English Channel. Estuarine Coastaland Shelf Science: 81, 569–574. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2008.12.005
Curtis-Jackson, P.K., Massé G., Gledhill M., FitzsimonsM.F. 2009. Characterisation of low molecular weight dissolvedorganic nitrogen by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-massspectrometry. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 7, 52-63.
Worsfold P.J., McKelvieI.D., Fitzsimons M.F., Monbet P., Stiles D.A., TappinA.D. (2008) Characterization and quantification of organic phosphorus andorganic nitrogen components in aquatic systems. Analytica Chimica Acta 624,37-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2008.06.016.
Leakey C.D.B., Attrill M.J., Jennings S. and FitzsimonsM.F. (2008) Retrospective quantification of estuarine feeding activityby coastally caught marine fishes. Journal of Sea Research 60 (1-2),210-214 DOI :10.1016/j.seares.2008.05.002.
Leakey C.D.B., Attrill M.J., Jennings S. and FitzsimonsM.F. (2008) Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and theirinvertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 77 (3), 513-522.DOI:10.1016/j.ecss.2007.10.007
Tappin A.D., Millward G.E. and Fitzsimons M.F. (2007) Thedistribution, cycling and recovery of amino acids in estuarine waters andsediments. Environmental Chemistry Letters 5 (3), 161-167.DOI: 10.1007/s10311-007-0099-9
Tappin A.D., Millward G.E. and Fitzsimons M.F. (2007)Natural estuarine particles and their uptake of nitrogen in estuaries.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, A1005-A1005.
Reports & invited lectures
ITV News. Feature on deteriorating bathing water quality in Southwest England.
BBC (The Politics Show). Feature on the extension of nitrate-vulnerable zones.
Western Morning News. Water contamination can cause stomach upsets.
Endeavour Society Lecture Series,University of Bangor, Wales. “Cycling of organic nitrogen in marine systems”.
Plymouth Marine Laboratory,Plymouth, UK. "Abundance and speciation of organic nutrients duringalgal growthcycles".
Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association UK meeting, Hull, UK. Title: "Pharmaceuticals in the Environment".
Royal Society of Chemistry Lecture, Plymouth, UK. Title: "Retrieving the black box; where do organics fit within the aquatic nitrogen cycle?"
5th European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry, Bari, Italy. Title: "Desorption kinetics of ammonium and methylamines from estuarine sediments: consequences for the cycling of nitrogen".
INTECOL Global Wetlands Conference Millennium Wetland Conference, Quebec, Canada. Title: "Distributions of the methylamines in the inter-tidal sediments of an East Anglian estuary, UK; a potential role for benthic invertebrates?"
Mark Fitzsimons. 2007. Cohesive sediment fluxes and their effects on nitrogen distributions in estuaries. Royal Society of Chemistry, final report.
Mark Fitzsimons. 2002. Dynamic behaviour of 1-aminopropan-2-one in sewage: an integrated synthetic and spectroscopic study. Royal Society of Chemistry, final report.
Mark Fitzsimons. 1999. Aminopropanone as a biochemical tracer of aquatic sewage contamination. Royal Society of Chemistry, final report.
Mark Fitzsimons. 1998. Biogeochemical cycling of labile organic nitrogen in marine and brackish systems. Royal Society of Chemistry, final report.
Fitzsimons M.F., Dando P.R., J.A. Hughes, F. Thiermann, I. Akoumianaki and S.M. Pratt. 1995. Submarine hydrothermal brine seeps off Milos, Greece: observations and geochemistry. MAST II final report for contract CT93-0058.
Mark F. Fitzsimons and Paul R. Dando. 1995. Chemical characteristics of the water mass of the Grotta Azzurra (S. Italy); a submarine cave fed by hydrothermal springs. MAST II final report for contract CT93-0058.
Mark F. Fitzsimons. 1994. Chemical study of a submarine cave ecosystem fuelled by geothermal springs. MAST II annual report for contract CT93-0058.
Mark F. Fitzsimons 1994. Chemistry of a shallow brine seep existing in an area of hydrothermal activity. MAST II annual report for contract CT93-0058.
George A. Wolff and Mark F. Fitzsimons. 1993. Environmental analysis of volatile nitrogen-containing compounds. NERC grant GR7/447A, final report.
Other academic activities
Chemistry Tutor for Year 2 undergraduates.
Module leader for Year 2 modules in Professional & Scientific Skills and Organic Chemistry; Year 3 module - Chemistry Research Project & Professional Skills
Freshwater and marine pollution
Analytical methods for environmental secience
Away from my scientific work, I am a very keen sportsman and musician. My preferred sports are soccer (5-a-side) and golf. I have also learned to wakeboard and drive a boat recently; taking the boat out into Plymouth Sound on a sunny summer's evening for a wakeboarding session is hard to beat. I enjoy walking in the beautiful counties of Devon and Cornwall and, in between times, follow Plymouth Albion RFC. My main musical instruments are the piano and violin. My piano playing has been revived after lying dormant for many years (i.e. when I couldn't get near a piano), and I am now taking off in a jazz and blues direction, inspired by Abdullah ibrahim. I play mainly Irish music on the violin, a habit I picked up (like drinking Guinness) in the great city of Liverpool, and I am a big fan of Martin Hayes.
Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Plymouth University