Before creating a pattern, a resist layer (electron beam sensitive material) needs to be applied to the substrate. Once applied, the sample is exposed to the electron beam, which can either be developed as a positive resist or negative resist. Subsequently there are two different types of pattern transfer, one being a material deposition and lift-off and the other being etching and resist strip. In the former, a material is deposited onto the entire surface and the resist is removed, leaving a pattern of deposited material. For the latter, the sample is etched around the resist layer and the resist layer is removed, leaving an etched pattern.